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Birelio (June) 29, 2008 

ReginosPalp: 2 dalis (ReginosPalepe: Part 2)

Kur buvau dingus? (Where have I been?)

Namo praradimo pavojai i ariau (Losing your House)

Kas yra patriotas? (What is a patriot?)

Kaip veikia prezidento rinkim mechanizmas? (Electing a President)

 

 

Liepos (July) 24, 2006

Alimentai vaik ilaikymui (Child Support Enforcement)

Laik krepelis (Mailbag)

Nra imigracini naujien (No Action on Immigration)

Alimentai vaikui Kalifornijoje (California Child Support)

Ar tikrai kitoks? (Marketing Scheme)

Nemokama antivirusin (Free Anti-Virus Software)

Foto Konkursas (Photo Contest)

Birelio (June) 21, 2006

Mes keiiame krypt (Changing Direction)

Imigruoti Kanad (Immigration to Canada)

Kaip atvykti JAV ir dirbti gydytoju (Coming to the US as a doctor)

Keliauti Japonij (Traveling to Japan)

Balandis (Apr) 24, 2006

Paskutins imigracins inios (Immigration Update) 

Balandis (Apr) 13, 2006

Velykins mintys (Easter Thoughts)

Emigrant keliu (Emmigrant Road)

Lina Macaitien

Jau pavasaris (It's Spring)

Balandis (Apr) 10, 2006 

Kol kas nra jokios imigracins reformos (No Immigration Reform Yet)

Patikrinti Application Status (Checking Application Status)

Darbo leidimai (Work Permits)

Moters biologinis laikrodis (Women's Biological Clock)

Albino Hoffman fotografijos (Photos by Albinas Hoffman)

Kaip tinkamai pasirengti emigranto kelionei (Preparing for the Journey of Emmigration)

Pramogos, renginiai ikagoje (Chicago Activities)

Kovas (Mar) 30, 2006

Imigraciniai debatai (The Immigration Debate)

DREAM aktas (The DREAM Act)

Kelion maina su vaikais ir be j (Driving Vacations)

Laik krepelis (Mailbag)

Kovas (Mar) 23, 2006 

Tapimas legaliais (Becoming Legal)

Krepinis ir isilavinimas (Basketball and Education)

JAV pilietybs egzaminas (US Citizenship Exam)

Darbo viza  (Employment Visa)

 Imigrant vizos (Immigrant Visas)

Lietuvika garin pirtis ( Lithuanian steam baths)

Kovas (Mar) 16, 2006 

Amerikieiai ir imigrantai (Americans and Immigrants)

Tapimas legaliais (Becoming Legal)

Skatiname imigracij? (Encouraging Immigration?)

Amnestija (Amnesty)

Plauk alinimas lazeriu (Laser Hair Removal)

Investuokite Baltijos alyse (Invest in the Baltics)

Kovas (Mar) 9, 2006 

Pauki gripo naujienos (Bird Flu Update)

Antibiotik ala (Antibiotic Abuse)

Laikai i  Norviliki pilies Lietuvoje (Letter from Norviliskiu Castle)

Kaip atsiimti nesumokt alg -- 2 (Unpaid Wages -- 2)

Imigraciniai klausimai (Immigration Questions)

Kur galiau rasti kvalifikuot eimos psicholog? (Finding a family therapist)

Laik krepelis (Mailbag)

Kovas (Mar) 3, 2006

Ms vieni metai (Its been One Year)

Reginos laikai (Regina's Letters)

Imigruojant Canada (Immigrate to Canada)

Padedate vieni kitiems (Readers Help Readers)

Lietuvos kulinarinis paveldas  (Lithuanias Culinary Heritage)

Kaip atsiimti nesumokt alg (Unpaid Wages Complaint)

  Poezijos tinklapis (Poetry Website)

Vasaris (Feb) 23, 2006 

Neramus laikas Buui (Troubles for Bush)

Ugavns (Shrove Tuesday)

Blynai, blyneliai, sklindiai (Pancakes, crepes, and scones)

Laik krepelis (Mailbag)

Skyrybos ir mokesiai (2) (Divorce and Taxes)

Vasaris (Feb) 16, 2006

Lietuvos nepriklausomyb (Lithuanian Independence)

Pompja (Pompeii)

Laikai i  Norviliki pilies Lietuvoje (Letters from Norviliskiu Castle)

Pasmerkto mirti istorija (Condemned to Die)

Skyrybos ir mokesiai (Divorce and Taxes)

Laik krepelis (Mailbag)

Paklausk Erikos (Ask Erika)

Vasaris (Feb) 9, 2006 

Bk Valentinu pati sau (Be your own Valentine)

Valentino diena (Valentine's Day)

Laik krepelis(Mailbag)

Psichologijos tinklapis - TAU!

Krepinio mokykla (School for Basketball)

Emigruoju Amerik (Coming to America)

Mam ir ti klubas (Mom and Dad's Club)

Skaitytoj kryba (Reader's Creations)

Vasaris (Feb) 2, 2006 

Reginos laikai (Regina's Letters)

Mokslinis mstymas 1 dalis (Scientific Thinking Part 1)

Mueik dovanos (Another Beating, Another Baubel)

Pagalba naujagimiui JAV (Public Aid for Baby)

10 met viza (10 Year Visa) 

Imigracin viza ankui (Immigrant Visa for Grandson)

Sausis (Jan) 26, 2006

Gydymas ar iliuzija? (Healing or Delusion)

Vaizduots galia (The Power of Imagination) 

Imigracins vizos (Immigration Visas)

Usienis ir dviguba pilietyb (Living Abroad with Dual Citizenship)

Sausis (Jan) 19, 2006

Psichinis gydymas (Psychic Healing)

Vitaminas D ir vins ligos (Vitamin D and Cancer)

Amerikos pilieiai usienyje (American Citizens Abroad)

New Yorko dirbanij apsauga (New York Workers Rights)

Laik krepelis(Mailbag)

Skaitytoj nuomons (Reader's Opinions)

Sausis (Jan) 12, 2006

Reginos laikai (Regina's Letters)

Js kompiuterio saugumas (Security for your Computer)

Seksualinis priekabiavimas (Sexual Harassment)

Vairavimas Virginia valstijoje (Driving in Virginia)

Social Security pinigai (Social Security Benefits)

Sausis (Jan) 5, 2006

Reginos laikai (Regina's Letters)

alia arbata ir svorio metimas (Green Tea and Weight Loss)

"Uraganiniai" automobiliai (Hurricane Cars)

Klausimai ir atsakymai (Questions and Answers)

Gruodis (Dec) 15, 2005

 Kald kilm (The Origins of Christmas)

ventiniai Kald vakarliai (Christmas Parties)

Ar tai mokslas? (Is It Science?)

Smurtas namuose (Domestic Violence)

Paauglio klausimas (Teenager's Question)

Kaip atsiimti pinigus  (How to get Money Back)

Sualojimai darbe (On the Job Injury)

Diazas Lietuvoje (Jazz in Lithuania)

Geri dalykai Lietuvoje (Positive Things in Lithuania)

ventj ki ir kald puota

Gruodis (Dec) 7, 2005

Bliuz klubas (Blues Club)

Pauki gripo baim (Catching Bird Flu)

Kald varks kukuliukai

Senoviniai klaipdietiki patiekalai (Ancient Lithuanian Dishes)

Vertingas projektas (Important Project)

iema ikagoje (Winter in Chicago)

2006 Nauj Met sutiktuvs  ir renginiai kitose valstijose (New Years 2006)

Laik krepelis (Mailbag)

Lapkritis (Nov) 22, 2005 

Legendos apie isilavinim (Myths about Education)

Asimiliacija (Assimilation)

Eks- gubernatoriaus teismas (The Ryan Trial)

Poet and Musician (Poetas ir Muzikantas)

Lapkritis (Nov) 17, 2005 

Padkos piet receptai (Recipes for Thanksgiving)

Lietuvos kulinarijos enciklopedija (Encyclopedia of Lithuanian Cuisine)

Lietuvos kulinarins tradicijos (Lithuania's Culinary Tradition)

Palyginimai (Comparing)

Viskas apie kalakut (All About Turkey)

Lapkritis (Nov) 10, 2005 

K reikia Padkos vent  (What Thanksgiving Means)

Pasirengimas Padkos Dienos pietums (Pot Luck Thanksgiving)

Thanksgiving ventės atsiradimo istorija

Baltj rm rpesiai (White House Troubles)

Spaudos laisv (Freedom of the Press)

Skaitytoj laikai Tinai (Reader's Letters to Tina)

alios kortels loterija (Green Card Lottery)

Klausimas apie alios Kortels loterij (Question about Green Card Lottery)

Kaip jauiasi gr gyventi Lietuv? (2) (Back Home in Lithuania)

Invalidas Lietuvoje iandien (An Invalid in Lithuania Today)

 


 

Ankstesni pusl. (Older Pages)


Reginos Palp Home Page  Birelio (June) 29, 2008

 

Electing a President

Regina Nuttall

 

The American presidential election is getting started. The two major parties have selected their candidates John McCain for the Republicans and Barack Obama for the Democrats. These candidates and their surrogates have started firing the first few verbal shots at each other, but they are not yet in full campaign mode. Soon you will be hearing all kinds of charges and counter-charges. Before that starts however, let's look at a few basics. How does the process of electing a president work?

(Read full text in English)

 


Kaip veikia prezidento rinkim mechanizmas?

Regina Nuttall

 

sibgja prezidento rinkimai Amerikoje. Dvi pagrindins partijos jau isirinko savo kandidatus-  respublikonai Don Makein (John McCain), o demokratai Barak Obam  (Barack Obama). Kandidatai bei jiems atstovaujantys politikai, kalbtojai, raytojai jau pradjo apsiaudym odiais. Neuilgo igirsite vairiausi kaltinim. Dabar tinkamas laikas susipainti su keliais pagrindiniais dalykais.

Kaip veikia prezidento rinkim mechanizmas?

Skirtingai nuo kit rinkim amerikiei politikoje, prezidentins lenktyns nra vienaveiksmis aktas (nebalsuojama vien kart, kaip, pavyzdiui u senatori, kuris baigs vienu balsu daugiau automatikai laimi). Tai penkiasdeimt vieneri atskiri rinkimai- po vien kiekvienoje valstijoje ir vien atskirai Jungtini Valstij sostinje Vaingtone, Kolumbijos apygardoje, District of Columbia,  (Washington DC). Sostin nelaikoma jokios valstijos dalimi. 

Kiekviena valstija turi tam tikr rinkj skaii arba kitaip tariant, balsus Rinkiminje Kolegijoje (votes in the Electoral College), t bals suma yra lygi bendram kiekvienos valstijos senatori ir atstov (Representatives) skaiiui.

Kadangi kiekviena valstija nepriklausomai nuo dydio) turi po du senatorius, tai  pradeda dviem rinkiminiais balsais  (electoral votes).  

Atstov Rm (House of Representatives) nari skaiius nustatomas pagal gyventoj skaii. Maiausios valstijos turi tik po vien atstov, o didiausia, Kalifornija, (California), turi penkiasdeimt tris. 

Taigi, tokios maos valstijos kaip Vermontas (Vermont) turi tris balsus, o Kalifornija (California) penkiasdeimt penkis (pridjom po du senatorius). 

Skamba taip, tarsi maos valstijos ignoruojamos, taiau atlik nesudtingus matematinius veiksmus suprasite, kad yra kaip tik prieingai.

Du tkstantaisiais vykusio paskutinio gyventoj suraymo duomenimis (2000 census), Kalifornijoje (California) gyveno 33,871,648 mons. Padalinkite t skaii i 55 rinkimini bals (electoral votes) ir pamatysite, kad Kalifornijoje vienas rinkiminis balsas vidutinikai tenka kas 616,000 mogui.

T pai met suraymo duomenimis Vermonte gyveno 608,827 mons ir ia rinkiminis balsas tenka vienam i 203,000. 

Toki keist sistem yra nulm istoriniai vykiai, j trumpai ia paaikinti nemanoma, bet prieastis, kodl ji nebuvo pakeista, labai paprasta.

Prezidentas yra prezidentas visiems amerikieiams, ne vien keliems didiesiems miestams. Sistema, leidianti balsus skaiiuoti, nekreipiant dmesio kur jie buvo surinkti, bt smarkiai pakrypusi tankiai apgyvendint centr pusn ir ireikt t rinkj vali. Kandidatus tuomet viliot galimyb rinkimin kampanij vykdyti Njujorke (New York), Losadelese (Los Angeles,)  ikagoje (Chicago) ir keliuose kituose didiuosiuose miestuose, nes tai vietos, kur jie rast balsus. Blogiausia, kad tuomet jie susigundyt valdyti, vadovaudamiesi didmiesi problemomis.

Ar tai bt labai blogai? Kodl nenukreipus dmesio problemas, kankinanias didesn dali gyventoj (didmiesiuose j tiriausia)? Todl, kad Nebraskos fermer palieiantys dalykai, palieia ir verslinink Nju Jorke (New York), nesvarbu ar jis tai ino ar ne. Jeigu fermeriai neaugins maisto, didmiesiai badaus, o kai miestieiai susigriebs, kad kakas negerai, tikriausiai bus per vlu k nors keisti. Nebraskietis daug anksiau gali pamatyti, kad reikia kak daryti kitaip. Kiekvienam naudinga federalin vyriausyb, skatinanti kreipti dmes visas Jungtini Valstij zonas.

Jeigu irsite TV rinkim vakar, tai pamatysite, kad laid vedjai seka balsavimo eig kiekvienoje valstijoje (i t penkiasdeimt vienos).

Laimjs kurios valstijos gyventoj balsus bet kurioje valstijoje, bet kuris (nesvarbu kuriai partijai priklausantis) kandidatas, automatikai laimi taip vadinam popular vote, tai reikia moni, tos valstijos gyventoj bals (amer. angl kalboje vartojama vienaskaita). Tuomet sakoma, kad kandidatas laimjo vis valstij.

Vadinasi, jei kandidatas laimjo Kalifornijoje, tai jis gauna visus penkiasdeimt penkis balsus, jei Vermonte- tris. Ir nesvarbu ar jis laimjo vieno balso ar milijono bals persvara.

2000- aisiais, Kai Dordas Buas (George Bush) prezidentiniuose rinkimuose galynjosi su  Elu Goru, (Al Gore), rinkim vakar j rezultatai buvo tokie panas, kad niekas negaljo nustatyti laimtojo tos dienos vakare  (rudeniniuose Prezidento rinkimuose visos Amerikos valstijos balsuoja t pai dien). Gaunamos rezultat suvestins i Naujojosios Meksikos (New Mexico)- 5 balsai, Oregono (Oregon)- 7 balsai ir Floridos (Florida)- 25 balsai, negaljo padti suprasti kurlink viskas krypsta.

Keli kit dien bgyje paaikjo, kad Naujojoje Meksikoje ir Oregone dauguma pasisak u Gor. Bet to vis tiek neuteko. Tuo metu Goras turjo 267 balsus, o Buas 246.  Floridos 25 bals bt utek bet kuriam i kandidat tapti laimtoju. Taiau Floridoje balsai lyg tyia pasiskirst tiksliai 50-50. Pus balsavo u Gor, o kita pus u Bu.

Tikriausiai girdjote apie tuoj po rinkim prasidjusius teismo procesus, vykusius en ir ten, kol galiausiai Amerikos Aukiausias Teismas (U.S. Supreme Court) paskelb, jog Buas Floridoje nugaljo 537 bals persvara.

Tas skirtumas tesudar  0.009% vis t dien dalyvavusi Prezidentuose rinkimuose Floridoje.

Buas laimjo maesniu negu vienu procentu i vieno procento, kai vienas procentas sudaro vien imtj.

Jeigu keli respublikonai bt t dien Floridoje pasilik namuose ir nj balsuoti arba jeigu keli demokratai, kurie patingjo nuvaiuoti balsuoti, bt tai padar, visa paskutini atuoni met Amerikos istorija bt iandien visai kitokia.

Taiau ir iandien yra daugyb moni, kuriems balsavimas nerpi. Jie paprasiausiai nekreipia dmesio. 

 

Reginos Palp Home Page  

(Lithuanian Text)

Unlike any other election in American politics, the presidential race is not a single election, but fifty one separate elections, one in each state and one in Washington DC which is not part of any state. Each state has a certain number of electors, or votes in the electoral college, which is equal to the total number of Senators and Representatives from that state. Since every state has two Senators, each state starts with two electoral votes. Members of the House of Representatives are apportioned by population, with the smallest states having only one, and the largest, California having 53. So a small state like Vermont has three votes and California has fifty five. That may sound like the small states are being ignored, but if you do a little math, you can see that exactly the opposite is true. In the 2000 census (the most recent one) California had a population of 33,871,648. Divide that by 55 electoral votes and you see that California gets one electoral vote for approximately every 616,000 people. In the same census, Vermont had a population of 608,827 which works out to one electoral vote for each 203,000 people. There are historical reasons why this strange system came about which would take too long to explain here, but the reason it has never been changed it simple. A president must be the president for all Americans, not just a few large cities. A system where you simply count all the votes regardless of where they came from would be biased heavily in favor of large population centers. Candidates would be tempted to campaign in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and a handful of other cities because that would be where the votes are. More importantly, he would be tempted to govern based on the problems of large cities.

Would that be so bad? Why not put most of the attention on the problems that directly affect the most people? Because the things that affect the life of a farmer in Nebraska, do affect the life of a businessman in New York, whether he knows it or not. If farmers don't grow food, cities starve, although by the time they realize something is wrong, it will probably be too late. The Nebraskan is able to see much earlier on that something needs to be done. It is in everybody's interest that the federal government is encouraged to pay attention to all areas of the country.

If you watch TV on election night, you will see the newscasters tracking each of the fifty one races. In each state, whichever candidate wins the popular vote gets all of that state's electoral votes, whether he wins by one vote or one million. In 2000, when George Bush ended up winning over Al Gore, the results were too close to call on election night. The results in New Mexico (5 votes), Oregon (7 votes) and Florida (25 votes) could not be determined. Over the next few days both New Mexico and Oregon were decided in favor of Gore. But that still was not enough. At that point Gore had 267 votes and Bush had 246. Florida's 25 would still be enough to give either man the victory. But Florida was divided almost exactly 50-50. There were lawsuits back and forth, and in the end the U.S. Supreme Court had to decide that the count which gave Bush the win in Florida by 537 votes would stand. That difference represented 0.009% of the votes cast in Florida. If a few more Republicans had stayed home or a few more Democrats had come out to vote, the whole history of the last eight years might have been different. Yet still some people say voting doesn't matter. Those people are just not paying attention.

 

 

 

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